Deficit theory – argues that students who differ from the norm in a significant way should be considered different
BME (Black Minority Ethnic) – non-white communities in UK
David Harewood Documentary – “Will Britain ever have a black President?”
- 45% of Afro-Caribbean children grow up in poverty – 25% white children.
- By the age of 5 those children identified above will be one year behind their wealthy counterparts in terms of their vocabulary – position of deficit.
- Children who are Black will work twice as hard because education is seen as an escape route – away from poverty and not in a disadvantages (Burgees, 2013)
- Black children are underachieving in primary school and there is a decline in KS2 (statistics from documentary)
How we respond to our opinions and discussions regarding race, ethnicity and cultural diversity we show our own position. Position determined by our own race. Our positionality can be influenced by others.
Firstly acknowledge out own race to then determine how we express our views and actions regarding this area.
Unconscious bias – stereotypes can influence this and we can have an opinion unknowingly due to believing this information. This can then influence racism and could be highly resistant to change.
We can gravitate to people who are like ourselves and this forms opinions.
…is Manifestation of hatred towards someone who has different characteristics to our own (Todorow, 2009)
- Institutional racism – failure of an organisation to provide appropriate and professional service for people who are deemed different due to their characteristics – BME
- We have to acknowledge racism and institutional racism to change the procedures around this for example practice/policy.
What can you do as a teacher/educator?
- Cannot assess through looking at a collection of people because you cannot identify if someone is from a BME background.
- get to know children on a personal basis – meeting their individual needs
- talk about families with pupils
- Deal with incidents because we have a duty to acknowledge and deal with this
- acknowledge children’s awareness of racism in the community – PSHE/ the news
- Follow ‘race equality policy’ all schools should have one
- Behaviour policy to also be followed in regards to bullying as this policy and the above work collaboratively.
- recognise when yours or other comments are racist or not
Pyramid of hate
Criminal – first 2
Civil – middle
Non-criminal incident – bottom 2
Dealing with Racism in Schools
- SRTRC (2011) say…
- some teacher struggle to do this as they are unaware of how to do this
- reporting criminal offences was seen as unintentional
- alternative measures and opinions regarding the definition and classification of levels of racism
Racism incident is…
…‘any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person.’
When a racism incident is seen the following should be done…
- Record the incident using forms which should be within the educational setting – linking to policies and procedures.
- the reporting forms are sent to the local authority and collated
All schools will be different in the policies and approaches when dealing and teaching race, ethnicity. Become knowledgeable of these procedures so if incidents occur you are aware of what is to be done.
- Challenge the discriminatory attitudes or behaviour, rather than the person.
- Expect tension and conflict and learn to manage it
- Be aware of your own attitudes, stereotypes and expectations
- Actively listen to and learn from others’ experiences
- Use language and behaviour that is non-biased and inclusive
- Provide accurate information to challenge stereotypes and biases
- Acknowledge diversity and avoid stereotypical thinking
- Be aware of your own hesitancies – be awarre of what makes you feel uncomfortable and challenge this
- Project a feeling of understanding, respect and support
- Establish standards of responsibility and behaviour working collectively with others
I have learnt through this session and lecture how to deal with racism in a school setting and how there are many levels of racism as well as areas which influence people views.
I believe, from reflection, that children of a young age may be influenced through external sources or their environment regarding behaviour and racism. A link to this would be Bandura and Bobo Doll experiment and theory, this being where children behave in a particular way as they see others, adults, acting in this way and they deem to believe this is appropriate. Therefore, if a child experiences racism they may not have the knowledge or understanding to classify if this is correct or not.
Lander and Knowles (2015) indicate from research that children should be taught throughout the curriculum the impact and information regarding racism, diversity and stereotypes. I also believe this is beneficial so children can then identify what their beliefs are. However, the educator who leads these sessions needs to ensure it is an unbiased session and they acknowledge their opinions beforehand so they can then be dealt with accordingly.
Following this I would like to develop my practice in relation to race and ethnicity by looking at appropriate policies in my next setting. This is because I believe children should have an equal knowledge about this area to form their own opinion and also acknowledge their own race.